Pull up resistor / Pull down resistor

 
Pull up resistor / Pull down resistor

What are pull-up resistors? Pull-up resistors are resistors used in logic circuits to ensure a well-defined logical level at a pin under all conditions. As a reminder, digital logic circuits have three logic states: high, low and floating (or high impedance). The high-impedance state occurs when the pin is not pulled to a high or low logic level, but is left “floating” instead. A good illustration of this is an unconnected input pin of a microcontroller. It is neither in a high or low logic state, and a microcontroller might unpredictably interpret the input value as either a logical high or logical low. Pull-up resistors are used to solve the dilemma for the microcontroller by pulling the value to a logical high state, as seen in the figure. If there weren’t for the pull-up resistor, the MCU’s input would be floating when the switch is open and brought down only when the switch is closed. Pull-up resistors are not a special kind of resistors; they are simple fixed-value resistors connected between the voltage supply (usually +5V) and the appropriate pin, which results in defining the input or output voltage in the absence of a driving signal. A typical pull-up resistor value is 4.7kΩ, but can vary depending on the application, as will be discussed later in this article. Pull-up resistor definition Pull-up resistors are resistors which are used to ensure that a wire is pulled to a high logical level in the absence of an input signal. What are pull-down resistors? Pull-down resistors work in the same manner as pull-up resistors, except that they pull the pin to a logical low value. They are connected between ground and the appropriate pin on a device. An example of a pull-down resistor in a digital circuit can be seen in the figure. [… read more]