The function of resistors is to oppose the flow of electric current in a circuit. Therefore their primary parameter is the resistance value. The manufacturing tolerance must be adequately chosen for each specific application. The ultimate resistance value may deviate from the specification because of many reasons. One is the temperature coefficient of resistance, or TCR, which is often specified for precision applications. Stability defines the long term variations of the resistance. After a long duration of electric load, the resistance value will not return to its original value. Electric noise appears in every resistor, and is for low-noise amplifying applications of importance. For high frequency applications, the inductance and capacitance properties play a role. Next to the characteristics related to resistance value, the maximum power and voltage can be specified. The maximum power rating is mainly for power electronics important, while resistors in electronic circuit boards mostly never reach the maximum power rating. For high voltage circuits, the maximum rated voltage must be taken into account. The quality of a resistor in terms of durability and reliability is for some applications more important than for others. An overview of the most common resistor properties and characteristics to describe a resistor are detailed below. Low Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) The TCR is dependent on the resistive material and the resistor construction. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity is determined by the material: Number of phonons Coefficient of expansion from the material Power rating The power rating indicates the maximum dissipation that the component is capable of. The rated dissipation is normally specified at room temperature and decreases at higher temperatures. This is called derating. Typically from 70°C derating is specified. Above this temperature, it can only utilize a reduced power level. This is illustrated by a derating curve. The [… read more]

Resistance changes with temperature The temperature coefficient of resistance, or TCR, is one of the main used parameters to characterize a resistor. The TCR defines the change in resistance as a function of the ambient temperature. The common way to express the TCR is in ppm/°C, which stands for parts per million per centigrade degree. The temperature coefficient of resistance is calculated as follows:     Where TCR is in ppm/°C, R1 is in ohms at room temperature, R2 is resistance at operating temperature in ohms, T1 is the room temperature in °C and T2 is the operating temperature in °C. Often instead of TCR, α is used. Positive or Negative Temperature Coefficient of Resistance? Resistors are available with a TCR that is negative, positive, or stable over a certain temperature range. Choosing the right resistor could prevent the need for temperature compensation. In some applications it is desired to have a large TCR, for example to measure temperature. Resistors for these applications are called thermistors, and can have a positive (PTC) or negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Measuring methods for the TCR The temperature coefficient of resistance for a resistor is determined by measuring the resistances values over an appropriate temperature range. The TCR is calculated as the average slope of the resistance value over this interval. This is accurate for linear relations, since the TCR is constant at every temperature. However, many materials have a non linear coefficient. For Nichrome for example, a popular alloy for resistors, the relation between temperature and TCR is not linear. Because the TCR is calculated as average slope, it is therefore very important to specify the TCR as well as the temperature interval. The way to measure TCR is standardized in MIL-STD-202 Method 304. With this method, TCR is calculated for the range between [… read more]